Tuesday, March 5, 2013
Viral gastroenteritis, also known as stomach flu, is an inflammation of the mucous coating of the stomach and intestines caused by certain groups of viruses. They stay in the epithelial cells of the mucosa, where they breed and cause damage to normal structure and function. The Stomach flu is highly infectious and very common - every year there are tens of millions.
1. What are the stomach flu symptoms?
The main stomach flu symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting. Also, frequent and headache, fever, chills and abdominal pain.
Dehydration is the most common complication of stomach flu. Infants, young children, the elderly and those with weakened immune systems are most at risk. Symptoms of dehydration are thirst, infrequent urination, dark urine, lethargy, fatigue, dizziness.
In young children and infants stomach flu symptoms are dry mouth and tongue, crying without tears, fever, unusually loud crying or high irritability, sunken eyes and cheeks.
Medical attention should be sought mandatory for young children and people with suppressed immunity, and in cases of blood in the stool (indication of bacterial superinfection), severe and prolonged course of infection, signs of dehydration. Severe dehydration may require intravenous hydration in hospital.
2. What are the most common stomach flu causes?
Rotavirus. Rotavirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children. The incubation period of Rotavirus lasts from 1 to 3 days. Usually the infection is accompanied by watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever and muscle pain for 3 to 7 days. Rotaviruses can infect and adults in contact with the ailing child. Stomach flu symptoms in adult occur more easily.
Calicivirus. Cause infections in people of all ages. Noroviruses are the most common calicivirus and the most common cause of stomach flu in adults. Often reach epidemic. Usually stomach flu epidemics broke out between October and April, but are available at any time of year. Typical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, headache and muscle aches. Symptoms begin 1-2 days after contact with the virus and last 1 to 3 days.
Adenoviruses. Mainly infect children under 2 years. There are 49 types of adenoviruses, one of which affects the intestinal tract and cause vomiting and diarrhea. The incubation period is 8-10 days and symptoms persist between one and two weeks. Adenovirus infections can occur at any time of year.
Astrovirus. Infect mostly infants and children less adults. The symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting continued until one week and appear after an incubation period of 3-4 days. The symptoms are milder than rotavirus or norovirus infections. Astroviral gastroenteritis are most common during the winter months.
3. How to transmit stomach flu?
Agents spread by airborne and contact-bit path. Available in feces and vomit. Patients can contaminate food and objects with the virus after defecating, especially if you do not wash your hands. It may be transmitted from contact with another person, such as a handshake. If vomiting viruses fall in the air.
Noroviruses are highly contagious especially. They can remain viable for months on the surface of objects that have not been thoroughly disinfected. In case of sick of such viruses is recommended disinfecting with bleach surrounding objects.
4. How to diagnose stomach flu?
Usually the diagnosis is based only on clinical manifestations. People with more severe and persistent symptoms may need to visit a specialist to recommend testing of feces to exclude bacterial and parasitic pathogens and identify company-or norovirus
5. What is the stomach flu treatment?
Most infections are self-limiting and require no etiological treatment.
Antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections!
The goal of treatment is control of stomach flu symptoms and prevent complications. OTC medications such as loperamide( and bismuth subsalitsilat (antacid antidiarik and antibacterial agent) can be administered in adults but not in children.
Important is proper diet, especially to prevent dehydration and violations of water-salt balance. It includes drinking plenty of fluids (preferably fruit juices or juices) to replace lost fluids and salts, feed restriction starting eating light, easily digestible foods - toast first, then cooked potatoes, rice and bananas, avoid of fatty meats and oily food.
Recommended and plenty of rest.
Children are particularly at risk of complications, especially dehydration. They may be appropriate giving special rehydration solutions. Recommended giving such solutions even in infants.
Currently exploring new diagnostic tests for different rotavirus strains, new vaccines, and noroviruses company and the benefits of probiotics for the treatment of gastroenteritis.
6. How to avoid viral gastroenteritis?
The risk of infection can be greatly reduced by following a few tips:
Thoroughly wash hands with soap after every visit to the toilet or changing diapers and before each meal.
Disinfect the patient's belongings. (Where possible, it is recommended to use bleach.)
Avoid consumption of foods and beverages that are suspected of being infected .
If symptoms of stomach flu, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and body aches lasting more than two days, be sure to seek medical attention! Stomach flu symptoms are same like symptoms of food poisoning, therefore, if the symptoms are very severe, you think about what you ate for the last 2 to 4 hours. If you suspect food poisoning, seek immediate medical attention.