Friday, August 16, 2013

3 Summer flu 2013: Summer stomach - intestinal infections

Summer stomach infections
Most common during the hot summer days are rotaviruses, enteroviruses and adenoviruses. Common also salmonellosis and viral hepatitis A. To protect yourself you should follow high hygiene and prevent your children to keep to places where there are many.

To make sure that you protect yourself from the summer stomach bug must have a high immunity that can secure some extent by eating foods rich in vitamins and minerals.

Doctors warn us that in August we can expect a summer flu, which can lead to complications such as meningitis and encephalitis.

To any summer flu most vulnerable children. The best way to cure small, and older people's to follow a diet.

The summer flu symptoms are usually temperature, diarrhea, and vomiting often, fatigue - mainly affect the gastrointestinal tract.

The elderly summer viruses usually undergo more easily than in children. If you do not pay close attention to their condition is likely to develop other serious diseases. Summer flu is just as dangerous as winter colds and flu conditions and should not be underestimated.

The summer infections develop very quickly - literally hours - the first symptoms are with vomiting and diarrhea then there etc. In order to heal, it is best to rest at home, take plenty of fluids - mineral water, no coffee, juice or any other sweet drinks.

 The food best Snack only toast white bread, pretzels, crackers. After a few days you will feel much better, but it is good to follow this diet for at least 3 days to make sure that everything is okay.

To make sure, best see a doctor, especially if these symptoms persist for more than a day - it will explain what to do to heal as quickly as possible.

Prolonged vomiting and diarrhea may lead to dehydration, and in the worst case, may lead to hospitalization and infusions.

The summer stomach bugs cause stomach flu with srious symptoms. Do not underestimate summer infections, they may experience serious complications that have severe effects on human health.

On warm summer days is very possible to get food poisoning from improper storage of food. Be careful what you eat and how you store food.

Sunday, August 11, 2013

3 stomach flu 2013: Viral gastroenteritis - the lookout in the summer, but not only!

summer stomach flu symptoms
Viral gastroenteritis, also known as stomach flu, is an inflammation of the mucous coating of the stomach and intestines caused by certain groups of viruses. They settled in the epithelial cells of the mucosa, where they multiply and cause damage to the normal structure and function. The stomach flu is a highly infectious and very common - every year there are tens of millions.

1. What are the stomach flu symptoms?

The main stomach flu symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting. Also frequently observed headache, fever, chills, and abdominal pain.

Dehydration is the most common complication of stomach flu. Infants, young children, the elderly and those with weakened immune systems are most at risk. Symptoms of dehydration are thirst, often urination, dark urine, lethargy, fatigue, dizziness.

In young children and infants, symptoms are dry mouth and tongue, crying without tears, fever, unusually loud crying or high irritability, sunken eyes and cheeks.

Medical attention should be sought mandatory for young children and people with suppressed immunity, and in cases of blood in the stool (an indicator of bacterial superinfection), severe and prolonged course of infection, symptoms of dehydration. Severe dehydration may require intravenous hydration in a hospital setting.

2. What are the most common causes of viral gastroenteritis?

Rotavirus. Rotaviruses are the leading cause of stomach flu in infants and young children. Incubation was continued for 1 to 3 days. Usually, the infection is accompanied by watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever and muscular pain for 3 to 7 days. Rotaviruses can infect and adults in contact with the ailing child. In adults, the stomach flu symptoms less severe.

Calicivirus. Cause infections in people of all ages. Noroviruses are the most common calicivirus and the most common cause of stomach flu in adults. Often reaching epidemic. Usually epidemics broke out from October to April, but are possible at any time of year. Typical stomach flu symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, headache and muscle aches. The symptoms started 1-2 days after contact with the virus and still 1 to 3 days.

Adenoviruses. Mainly infects children under 2 years. There are 49 types of adenoviruses, one of which affects the gastrointestinal tract and causes nausea and diarrhea. The incubation period is 8-10 days and symptoms persist between one and two weeks. Adenoviral infections may occur at any time of year.

Astroviruses. Infect mostly infants and children less adults. The symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting, continuing for up to one week, and appears after an incubation period of 3-4 days. Symptoms were less severe than Norovirus or rotavirus infections. Astroviruses stomach flu are most common during the winter months.

3. How to transmit infection?

Agents spread by airborne and contact-bit path. Available in faeces and vomit. Patients can contaminate food and objects with the virus after defecating, especially if you do not wash their hands. Able to communicate and contact with another person, such as a handshake. Emesis viruses fall into the air.

Noroviruses are highly contagious especially. They can remain viable for months on the surface of objects which have not been thoroughly disinfected. If there are sick of such viruses, it is recommended that the disinfection of the surrounding objects with bleach.

4. How to diagnose stomach flu?

Typically diagnosis is only based on the clinical manifestations. People with severe and prolonged stomach flu symptoms, you may have to visit a specialist to recommend the study of feces to exclude bacterial and parasitic pathogens and identify company-or norovirus.

5. What is the treatment of stomach flu?

Most infections are self-limiting and require no etiological treatment.

Antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections!

The goal of treatment is to control stomach flu symptoms and prevent complications. OTC medications such as loperamide (antidiarrheal) and bismuth subsalicylate (antacid antidiarrheal and antibacterial agent) can be administered in adults but not in children.

Important is the right diet, especially to prevent dehydration and disruption of water-salt balance. It includes drinking plenty of fluids (ideally fruit juices or juices) to replace lost fluids and salts, feed restriction starting eating light, easily digestible food - first toast, then boiled potatoes, rice and bananas, avoid of fatty meats and oily food.

Recommended and plenty of rest.

Children are particularly at risk of complications, especially dehydration. They may be appropriate for the provision of special rehydration solutions. Recommended the granting of such solutions even in infants.

Currently explore new diagnostic tests for different rotavirus strains, new vaccines against norovirus and company-and the benefits of probiotics in the treatment of stomach flu.

6. How can you avoid viral gastroenteritis?

The risk of infection can be greatly reduced by following a few tips:

Thoroughly wash hands with soap after each visit to the toilet or changing diapers and before each meal.
Disinfect the vessels of the patient. (Where possible, it is recommended to use bleach.)
Avoid consumption of foods and beverages that are suspected of being infected.

Monday, August 5, 2013

2 Flu symptoms 2013 What is flu and How do you catch him

What is flu and the flu virus?

The flu is an acute infectious disease of viral etiology. Flu symptoms are fever, cough, headache and muscle aches. It spreads easily from person to person, it circulates around the world and can affect everyone - from the youngest to the elderly and cause epidemics and pandemics. Disease known since ancient times. There is evidence that humanity has experienced so far over 30 flu pandemics, and only in the last century, there were three. The most serious of these, so called. "Spanish flu", founded in 1918, has led to the deaths of 20-50 million people.

The flu virus belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, that there is only one race - Influenzavirus, including viruses causing disease in humans, mammals and birds. Some flu strains are species specific (infect only certain species, or only the people), but there are strains of flu that can spread from animal species to humans. Famous 3 types of flu virus - type A, type B and C. Influenza type C viruses, although similar in morphology differs from the other two types of the antigen and other basic properties. Influenza C occurs sporadically and causes respiratory disease with a slight leakage.
Viruses that cause seasonal epidemics are of type A and type B.
The most volatile are type A flu virus

The flu viruses are RNA viruses with a spherical shape. Their genome is divided into 8 separate fragments, which allows great opportunities for genetic variations. Wrapped in a lipid envelope containing two specific glycoprotein issued on the surface as "spikes" - hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Hemaglutininat serves for attachment of the virus to the cells. Neuraminidase facilitates the penetration of the virus into the cell, but also participates in the later stage of exit of the infected cell.

The flu viruses have developed many mechanisms to change its sheathoid glycoproteins, so as to prevent the body's defenses. Hemaglutininat most cosmetic and volatile component A virus neuraminidase also vary, but less intensively. There have been 16 types of hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase type. Designating influenza viruses type A reference established types N and H. There may be multiple combinations of different H and N, i.e. has the potential for many subtypes of influenza. In the past 50 years, most of the flu in humans were caused by strains with 3 subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1, H2, H3) and two types of neuraminidase (N1, N2). Contemporary indication of flu viruses and indicates where the virus was first isolated and year of isolation. Characteristic of influenza viruses is their ability to change. So they can overcome the body's defenses. Hemaglutininat is the most volatile component A virus neuraminidase is also changed, but less intensively. Small changes in the genes for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are called antigenic drift. Drift occurs within a distinct subtype and may lead to a change in virulence. Large changes, called antigenic shift resulting from the rearrangement of the gene to be achieved between the 2 different strains of viruses likely conditions of mixed infection (e.g. infection of an organism with a human virus, and avian). That may result in a virulent strain which is more lethal and spread faster. They are responsible for a flu pandemic.

How do you catch the flu?

Flu viruses are spread by droplets through tiny droplets that are released when sneezing, coughing, speaking of people who are infected and are around us. Virus infection occurs after inhalation of these droplets. If the flu virus is not neutralized in the upper respiratory tract, to enter cells of the nose, throat, etc. and begin to rapidly multiply. Patient Virus removed from the beginning of the development of symptoms or within 24 hours before development. Viruses continue to be paid within 5-10 days. Young children shedding virus for longer. Patients with impaired immunity may secrete the virus several weeks to several months. Transmission of influenza viruses on contact time (by touch) is much rarer. Transmission of influenza from poultry or pigs to humans probably be achieved by a direct contact with infected animals. The risk is particularly high during the slaughter and preparation for consumption. Proper cooked meat poses no risk. Bird flu can also be spread through exposure to water and surfaces contaminated with bird droppings.

Throughout the year can be seen cases of flu. In an area annually observed seasonal ups of infection that are mostly among children in a time when they are clustered in schools and aerosol distribution mechanism is the most efficient. Autumn-winter seasonality is associated with the ability of the virus to survive better at low temperatures. Disinfectants destroy viruses in few minutes. Fly epidemics have occurred 1-3 years usually in season head. They are a result of the emergence of new strains.The flu pandemic covering the entire population of the world occurring in 10-20 years. The reason for this is the ability of influenza virus to modify and to avoid the immune system.

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