Tuesday, September 24, 2013

0 Flu vaccine: Scientists develop new flu vaccine.

flu shot
 In recent months, U.S. scientists develop new flu vaccine, and their goal is to create a tool to more effectively protect the people of the coming flu pandemic wave.

With the end of summer and the temperature drops, slowly comes and the season of serious disease for which scientists do not stop looking for a cure. Unlike other vaccines, such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, polio, thie flu vaccine is improving every year.

In the U.S., even now there are proposals by pediatricians children 6 years and older to be vaccinated as soon as the new vaccine becomes available.

According to the Centre for prevention and control of diseases in the U.S. seasonal flu vaccines reduced to 60% risk of becoming ill.

Experts constantly monitor flu viruses to identify those that are most likely to cause sick humans. After the identification, however, it takes at least six months in order to create a vaccine.

The main problem here comes from the long period during which the development of a vaccine takes. Meanwhile, the virus can evolve significantly and then created a vaccine would not be effective enough.

Researchers working on a revolutionary prevention of influenza - a vaccine to protect against all types of influenza viruses, ie seeking "universal flu vaccine". Its development is at an experimental stage, and initial clinical studies suggest that its creation is completely feasible.

Universal vaccine will provide longer protection. It is also planned to be called once like that measles.

What is the prevention of influenza and acute respiratory diseases?
When is the right time to be vaccinated against influenza?

Means of prevention are divided into two major groups - non-specific and specific.

Limit the spread of non-specific causes of respiratory infections such as covering your mouth and nose with a mask or cloth in speaking, sneezing and coughing, frequent replacement and disposal of used masks at designated locations, good personal hygiene, frequent hand washing and rubbing with wipes or disinfectant.

Specific tools include preparations with specific action regarding influenza viruses - flu vaccines and antivirals.

Essential for the prophylaxis of influenza are the current flu vaccines, which are characterized by good tolerability and proven effectiveness.

Vaccination is held in the fall, at least about 1 month before the beginning of the epidemic, as post-vaccination immunity is formed 15-20 days after vaccination. For our latitudes are the most suitable months from October to November, maybe September.

In humans, for which immunization is strongly recommended, but has not been made in time, the vaccine may be administered in December, taking into account the time required for producing immunity - not less than 2 weeks.

Prophylaxis with antiviral drugs is not recommended as standard practice for a number of reasons, including the risk of selecting resistant strains. In any particular case the decision should be made by a specialist.

What should be the prevention of influenza and acute respiratory diseases in at-risk groups?

The only reliable means of protection from flu influenza vaccines. Therefore, they are highly recommended for risk groups.

For people at risk who have not been immunized because of contraindications, no vaccine or other reasons can be applied to prevent antiviral drugs with a prescription.

What other measures can we take to boost immunity to prevent illness during the winter ?

We must not forget that vaccines protect only the included influenza strains, ie from a serious illness, " flu" during the season, and the development of complications. To prevent other causes of acute respiratory disease should not forget some simple rules, often ventilate the premises and hand washing with warm water and soap.

Other measures to reduce exposure to air pollution indoors than solid fuel stoves, smoking, etc..

Full and proper nutrition is also important. It is extremely important to promote breastfeeding of infants for 6 months.

Provision of adequate sleep and rest is also an important measure to improve the overall health and prevention of flu and other respiratory diseases in winter.

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

1 Stomach flu : Kobuvirus, the new stomach infection

Kobuviruses, new causes of stomach flu

In 1989 . in the county Aihi in Japan in the stool of a person suffering from a stomach flu, was isolated agent called Aihivirus. Yamashita and Takeda authors found that it was 30nm smaller, round, non-enveloped virus that has a positive single-stranded RNA genome of 8280 nucleotides. Aihivirus with newly stomach virus in cattle and swine, formed a new genus Kobuvirus to the picornavirus family .

Increasing also interesting to kobuvirusite rapidly induces numerous studies have found that infection in Asia, Europe and America , both in humans and in animals. Proven so far several different genotypes - to humans, bovine , swine and sheep and possibly rats.
Human kobuvirus a prototype Aihivirusa has 3 variants A, B and C, which are distributed in different continents . Serological survey registers from 70 to 90% of positive blood samples in the elderly . This percentage will get bigger with age. As with other intestinal infections , about half of them pass oligosymptomatic . Clinical picture does not differ much from that of rotaviruses stomach flu. After a short incubation period of up to two days the infection starts with the usual symptoms of stomach flu - transient increase in temperature , malaise, abdominal pain and diarrhea, which is complicated by E. coli . E. coli infection accompanied kobuvirus infection. Rarely appear and respiratory flu symptoms - panting , leaks from the nose , cough, pneumonia , headaches, etc.

Kobuvirus infection has recently become a problem for the human pathology , but still not have developed biologics against her.

Boville kobuvirus is also quite common cause of stomach flu, but because of poorly studied, the distribution is still unclear, and there almost half oligosymptomatic infections occur . Initially infection induces abomazit which reduces appetite , then the virus passes into the small intestine and cause more severe enteritis . Some authors also reported prolonged colitis. Often kobuvirus infection is found in the respiratory tract as bronchopneumonia lesions.Te accompanied regularly by E. coli infections. A subset of infected calves developed respiratory infection catarrhal conjunctivitis . The mortality rate ranges between 5 and 10% , especially if combined with a bacterial infection.

Swine kobuvirus was first isolated in Hungary in 2007, and then in a number of Asian countries - China, Korea , Thailand and Japan. Serological studies show about 90 % positive pigs. Unlike Aihi and Boville kobuvirus, swine Kobuvirus is prone to generalization and viraemias. It is localized not only in the intestine , but can often be found in the body. The virus is excreted in the faeces not only, but also through all the excreta of the sick pig. So it spreads much more intense. Except for diarrhea and stomach flu, the kobuvirus involved in pneumonia with encephalitis and meningitis in pigs, etc.
The Kobuvirus inefection diagnosis is difficult and lengthy. Identification is achieved only through the SGP and then for each genotype using different primers. Clinical picture of kobuvirus infection is not typical and may be confused with several other virus infection.

Despite the significant number of studies , many countries and areas of kobuvirus infection in animals remain unanswered . Spread of infection in many countries is not yet established . Pathogenesis of kobuviruses not only affects the intestinal tract, but also covers a number of other bodies. When this is not yet known which cells and tissues are Predilection for this virus does quiescent conditions , etc.

Immunity against kobuviruses is also unbeaten and appropriate vaccines have not been developed . Since kobuvirus infection becomes relevant especially fever have in this country to begin research vahu this infection .

From the foregoing, it appears that are kobuviruses causative as stomach flu and respiratory diseases such as pneumonia. Among other things, kobuvirus infection usually accompanied with E. coli infection, which further complicates the clinical picture. In some cases the combination is lethal.
Symptoms of kobuvirus infetsiya are standart stomach flu symptoms and in some cases, symptoms of seasonal flu. This makes diagnosis more difficult.

Sunday, September 15, 2013

0 Flu symtoms: And this fall, we are not insured by the flu mutation

flu season 2013 - 2014

- What are the forecasts for the expected influenza strains in the new season ? Expect surprises?

Right now it is difficult to make predictions . Influenza viruses have not appeared yet in the Northern Hemisphere.

According to the World Health Organization can expect the emergence of flu strains AH1N1 California, it is possible in some areas to meet and flu strains of AH3N2 Perth , which is known to us from two years ago.

This is somewhat reassuring that the two flu strains have passed through our society and should have some residual immunity in people who have suffered them . On the other hand , as we know , one of the flu virus is very variable , and should not exclude new mutations.

Therefore, to estimate what will be the flu pandemic wave weak or strong by now I can't say.

- A wave of influenza vaccines which will be suitable to use?

If the patient himself has fluctuations what flu vaccine to accept it you should consult your doctor , who advised him most suitable . Putting flu vaccine is a personal choice . In the U.S. the new flu season will be available already and the new quadrivalent flu vaccine . It first includes 4 flu strains - two type A strains and two strains of type B. This provides better protection against flu.

- There are different opinions . Some are opposed to vaccination , others supporters of flu vaccine. Who should be vaccinated?

Experts say that everyone should be vaccinated . This is the only and most secure way to protect not only the flu , but for all diseases for which immunizations are developed . However, there are people who do not need to be vaccinated . Who are you can see in our previous post:

- Which risk groups is recommended to be vaccinated?

Indeed, this is the most important problem. No illusions that flu vaccination should be performed on the entire population. We have no such goals, but to the 2014-2015 season , the need to achieve 75% coverage of vulnerable groups. They are very well defined . These are people over 65 and those with chronic respiratory , heart , internal and metabolic diseases. In fact, this is a large group , it covers the most common diseases. Experience shows that these people must be protected because these complications after suffering flu are most severe , and in some cases fatal.

- What should I do to avoid infection with influenza?

Flu vaccine is the best way. But in life there are different reasons to put it . In this case, always with great skepticism advised to avoid contact with sick . This is impossible . At the beginning of flu epidemics is very large number of people who take the virus. Secondly it is very easy to submit , because becoming airborne . And when sneezing , coughing in public transport , shops and other infection becomes very effective . It is an illusion to say that socially active people can avoid contacts .

- Really treat flu or fight it on foot?

We miss " flu culture " in which at the first flu symptoms - fever , sore throat , coughing , sneezing, we should stop going to work to avoid jeopardizing their colleagues. Unfortunately, these are rare cases.

Monday, September 9, 2013

0 Flu vaccine for you and your children

flu vaccine for you and your children

 The children are one most at risk groups vulnerable to viruses that cause flu. In the U.S. each year are hospitalized more than 20 000 children under 5 years of age with flu symptoms or complications from influenza , such as pneumonia.The flu vaccine can to protect children from serious diseases and even death.
 Most often in the hospital receives children ill flu under 2 years of age. Also, children between the ages of 2 and 4 often seek medical care from GPs or in emergency centers.

Who and when to be vaccinated against flu?

 The flu vaccine is recommended for all , starting with children from 6 months age by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

 To have a greater effect than the flu vaccine is advisable to be vaccinated immediately when vaccines are available in the fall. The objective is to sufficiently during your body to build immunity against influenza virus before flu season is in height. If your child turns 6 months old, in the middle of winter , not
worry . No problem to get your flu shot, even in late January or beginning of February .

How many times should be vaccinated?

 Your physician can tell you how many doses you need , you and your child . some children St require 2 doses of influenza vaccine , especially if you get vaccinated for the first time .
 This year, the U.S. market will show the new quadrivalent flu vaccine can eliminate the need for 2 doses of flu shot.

When you shouldn't be vaccinated against the flu?

 Should not be vaccinated adults and children who have an allergy to eggs.
The reason is that influenza vaccines grown in chicken eggs and contain scars
egg protein .
Not called influenza vaccine to children under 6 months.
Not vaccinated people who have had a severe reaction to a previous vaccination .
Flu vaccine is put to children and adults with the illness with fever .
After they pass the disease can be vaccinated .
If you have questions about whether or not to vaccinate , popitayde your doctors .

Why each year the flu vaccine is changed?

 Each year, scientists develop a new influenza vaccine based on the flu strains which have been in circulation previous flu season . Over the past 30 years influenza vaccines protect against three different flu strains , two strains of influenza type A and one strain of type B. This year, for the first time will be placed quadrivalent flu vaccine that will protect against 2 strains of type B.
 Influenza type A strains are those that cause flu epidemicsand pandemics have severe complications , even death. Strains of type B had less severe symptoms and
pass by lightly .
 Influenza vaccines have about 60% success in preventing the flu. This is Because we each flu season there influenza strains which are not included in the vaccine. But if you vaccinated and still get flu , thanks to the vaccine will fight easier with flu symptoms and recover more quickly.

Are there any side effects from the flu vaccine?

 The main side effect of the flu vaccine is pain around the injection site . This is because they almost all vaccines were placed intramuscularly with the most frequently put in the shoulder. Some children , especially those who have not suffered from the flu so far , may exhibit influenza symptoms such as mild fever , muscle aches and fatigue. These symptom can could continue up to 2 days .
 When using a nasal flu vaccine , some children exhibit flu like symptoms fever, headache, vomiting, fever,  muscle pain and wheezing.
 Other severe allergic reactions are rare , but may occur in all influenza vaccines. If you feel unwell or if you notice any symptoms your child see a doctor !

Saturday, September 7, 2013

0 Flu symptoms 2013: New quadrivalent flu vaccine.

flu shot
In the new vaccination season , will make its debut the new quadrivalent flu vaccine. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have already made a large order of the new influenza vaccine. Manufacturers of influenza vaccines are reporting good demand for the new product.

Approval of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the sale of quadrivalent influenza vaccine for the past 18 months have been MedImmune, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), and Sanofi Pasteu.

Seasonal flu vaccines for several decades have focused on two flu strains of type A ( H1N1 and H3N2 ) and one influenza strain of type B. The new quadrivalent flu shot includes two strains of influenza type B. This is done in order to get vaccinated better protection , regardless of which strain of type B will appear in the next winter.

Production of influenza vaccines for the U.S. market this season will reach between 135 million and 139 million doses. It is not clear how many of these flu shots will be the new quadrivalent flu vaccine. Perhaps the new vaccine will reach only 25 million doses. So if you want to get dase dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine would be better to look at than before.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention inforormirat that about 25,000 Americans die from flu complications each flu season . Federal health officials recommended this year to make influenza vaccines for almost everyone , starting at 6 months of age.

Remember what happened last flu season. Authorities in Boston and New York declared an emergency situation. Had to allow pharmacists to put flu vaccines even infants. Flu epidemic has covered 48 states and took many casualties . Maybe it's better this season to vaccinate as many people as possible .

One expert with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) commented that the quadrivalent vaccines are more costly than trivalent ones, and he cautioned that it remains to be seen whether they will actually yield better protection than the older versions.

Also new in the US flu vaccine marketplace this year are two cell-based flu vaccines, made by Novartis and Protein Sciences Corp. The vaccines are grown in cell cultures rather than in chicken eggs, the method in use for more than 50 years. Cell-culture technology is regarded as more flexible and a little faster than egg-based production, and it eliminates the risk of egg-related allergic reactions.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), which advises the CDC, included quadrivalent flu vaccines when it voted in February on the flu vaccines recommended for use this year. No preference for use of any one vaccine over another has been stated by the ACIP for groups for which more than one type of vaccine is appropriate and available.

Thursday, September 5, 2013

0 Stomach flu 2013: Bacterial gastroenteritis - symptoms, treatment, causes.

Intestinal bacteria , staphylococci , dirty hands and stale food are just some of the reasons for the unpleasant summer disease

stomach flu symptoms
Bacterial gastroenteritis ( stomach flu ) is one of the so-called summer infections. Most often occurs precisely in the warm weather , and the most affected are children, the elderly and pregnant women .
This disease attacks people while traveling , on the beach , on the train or even at home.

Experts have concluded that bacterial gastroenteritis " flourish " mainly in the summer. This happens because of the high temperature, which helps the bacteria to multiply . A viral gastroenteritis is more common in winter and infection usually becomes airborne .

Overall infection of the digestive system " attack " densely populated areas - kindergartens , schools , camps , restaurants, hikers , beaches, hotels ...

As retailers seem - always carry a disinfecting wipes .
Bacterial gastroenteritis is caused by certain intestinal bacteria , staphylococci pathogenic enteric bacillus , salmonella and microbial dysentery.

Viral gastroenteritis is provoked by intestinal virus called rotavirus. In most cases the infection is a result of dirty hands of spoiled or poorly prepared food, from impure water from dirty objects - knives , forks, towels. And also from raw oysters .
A rare chronic gastroenteritis. It occurs in a serious pathological condition , for example in patients with a diagnosis of cancer .

Symptoms of bacterial gastroenteritis are much stronger and prolonged than that of the viral.

Generally the stomach flu symptoms are acute and variable depending on the causes of pain and response of the organism. Here are the outward signs :

- Nausea or vomiting - often at an early stage;
- Pain in the gut, sometimes less , sometimes very acute ;
- Diarrhea.

According to the experts these are the symptoms of inflammation. There are others - the stools can be a rare and perhaps more common. Sometimes mixed with mucus , and in more severe cases - with blood. Again, experts note that these signs are characteristic of bacterial gastroenteritis. When it tends to increase the temperature . Infection lasts 2-3 days.
Symptoms of bacterial gastroenteritis are much stronger and longer than those of viral gastroenteritis - also known as stomach flu.

The signs of inflammation were detected after one to three days from the time of infection. Viral gastroenteritis heal within 2-3 days. Depending on the level of toxicity ( poisoning ) , the disease can last up to 5 days , maybe 10 days .

Here's the place to say that scientists have developed two vaccines against rotavirus in the form of a mixture . Has them in almost all countries. We recommend that you take advantage of them , it is especially important for children.

Run to the doctor as soon as the first symptoms

Treatment of stomach flu has several phases:

- Hydration of the body and diet . This is a special treatment that involves a very large amount of fluids - mainly water, soup, easily digested meal . This cure most types of viral gastroenteritis.

- Serum introducing liquids. Electrolytes used in the event that has led to dehydration.

- Antibiotics . Accepted only in certain situations. Needed special medication.

- Surgery . This is necessary when it comes to bowel perforation and , of course, happens very rarely . In severe cases of viral and bacterial gastroenteritis patient is being treated in a hospital .

Children, the elderly and pregnant women are most vulnerable. Experts say it is important to call the doctor immediately after detection of the first symptoms. Otherwise may lead to dehydration.

Experts warn

- Do not take anti-diarrheal medicines because it can lead to unintended consequences - entangling or bowel obstruction .

- Do not drink milk and dairy products.

- Do not eat fruit , drink juice or take raw vegetables .

- Lost in these few days pastries and sweet fruit.

- Your doctor will recommend what to eat during this time. Usually had to make do with rice, biscuits , chicken meat , herbal teas, carbonated water.

- Your body needs easily absorbable food to be prepared at home.

- After a few days you can go to the usual diet .

- For infants and very young children need this. Look at pharmacies and supermarkets especially milk against diarrhea - soy or lactose-free . Before you give your child , consult your doctor and follow his recommendations.

- For older children is contraindicated to take ice cream or dairy products because they can trigger diarrhea.

First Aid stomach flu

First and most important is to prevent dehydration. And for this purpose you should be familiar with the signs of this condition :

- Constant feeling of thirst ;
- Dark urine ;
- Dry skin ;
- Dry mouth ;
- Sunken cheeks and eyes ;
- A very small amount of urine or complete lack of one.

Before you find yourself in the skilful hands of the doctor , you should drink plenty of fluids - Add the water a little sugar or salt - better mix them . Rich electrolyte drinks are taken only as prescribed by a physician.
Infants and young children give water with a dropper .
If you are sick , wait half , up to one hour and then start drinking liquids in small quantities.

How to Prevent stomach flu

- Well wash your hands every time before eating and after exiting the restroom . This will protect you from all kinds of infections and diseases. Will avoid contamination with germs and prevent those around you . Teach your children how to wash their hands - a must with hot water and soap. Emphasize the places between your fingers .

- Do not use anyone with the same plate , knife, cup , toothbrush , towel .

- If a family member is ill , avoid close contact with him. Frequently wash your hands , take a bath or shower at every opportunity possible .

- Maintain optimum temperature regime at home - the temperature is not higher than 25 degrees. At higher temperature, the prepared meals you can quickly spoil.

- Very good wash raw fruits and vegetables , whether you bought them from the market, or you type them from your own garden .

- Put almost everything in the refrigerator, especially perishable products - sauces, milk, cream, meat.

- Wash not only your hands but also objects that are used in cutting and touched raw meat. Such are the board and the knife which will then cut the bread, salad and so on.

- Be very careful when you buy shellfish - such as various seafood . Especially if you do not know their origin.

- When you go on vacation or traveling, you should make sure that the staff in the kitchen and bathroom there meets all sanitary and hygienic conditions. These are restaurants , taverns , cafes , eateries , bars , etc.

During travel

- Drink only bottled water , avoid it is very cold .

- Decline of raw food and undercooked meat or fish.

- Always carry a personal hygiene items - toilet paper, soap and towels. There you will find yourself in places where you do not have those things so necessary

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

4 Summer flu 2013: Dangerous summer viruses.

Summer flu are no less dangerous than the winter!

The flu viruses are typical of the winter months , but GPs warn of especially dangerous summer flu viruses that we should not ignore , despite the warm weather . Causes of summer flu are basically seven enteroviruses .

Enteroviruses are usually grow in the intestine , but it is also possible to attack the beta cells of the pancreatic gland , which produces insulin and cause diabetes in children and adolescents. In elderly people enteroviruses may affect the heart , causing myocarditis and / or aseptic meningitis .

In most cases, the summer flu symptoms is fever , stomach pain , fever , rash, nausea , diarrhea and abdominal pain. Usually the virus develops in the small intestine and just a few hours can be modified to a completely different type of virus. Good hygiene proved the best prevention method for summer viruses.

Enteroviruses are extremely resistant and can infect not only airborne , but if you use a foreign or poorly washed dishes . It is possible to catch even when traveling on public transport from touching the handles on the bus or rail of the escalator in the metro . Over 80 % of cases of enterovirus infections have no clinical symptoms. If you are infected , you may not feel any flu symptoms for several days, but during this period can infect many people around you.

The surest way to prevent summer flu to improve their personal hygiene and improve your immune system. If you are in good health , there is usually no need to visit your GP with flu symptoms. The best treatment consists in staying home and relaxing . Drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration. You can take Paracetamol and Ibuprofen to download fever and relieve pain.

Necessarily seek medical advice :

If you are over 65 years;
If you are pregnant ;
If you have a weak immune system;
If you suffer from chronic diseases.

The flu is particularly dangerous for those groups at risk , as they are prone to complications. If you fall into one of these high risk groups likely to complicate the disease is very high. Immediately call your doctor , who can prescribe antiviral medication. They will not cure the flu , but it will relieve some of the flu symptoms will likely reduce the risk of complications , but will also speed up and repair process . Note that antibiotics are prescribed for flu and viral diseases as they have no effect on viruses .

stomach flu symptoms Copyright © 2011 - |- Template created by O Pregador - |- Powered by Blogger Templates