Flu is acute, self-limiting infectious disease that is caused by influenza virus types A, B and C. The temperate climate region, flu epidemics always occur during the winter months. The disease is manifested by toxic infectious syndrome - a sharp deterioration in general health, headache, pain behind the eyeballs, pain in muscles and joints, acute tracheitis, and pulmonary complications leading to high mortality.
Infection is accomplished by transmission of the virus by the secretions from the upper respiratory tract of infected persons. At the beginning of the infection in the secretions of infected concentrate huge amounts of viruses that are transmitted by sneezing, coughing or talking. Only one person is able to infect a wide range of sensitive individuals. This can lead to explosive and snap-onset disease in many people. Man is the primary reservoir and source of infection of influenza. Leading role of Air droplet mechanism in enclosed spaces such as public facilities, vehicles and more. The period of infectiousness in adults is 3 to 5 days after the onset of the disease and up to 7 days in children.
The main factors that determine the risk of disease are: level then its predecessor specific immunity and age of infected them - the final ages are extremely susceptible to infection. With the increased risk are people with sore subject for the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, metabolic diseases, especially diabetes, cancer, immunodeficiency, pregnancy and more.
The incubation period - time from inoculation to first appearance of disease symptoms is from 24 hours to 4-5 days, depending on the infecting dose and the immune status of the organism. The flu infection in adults include a wide spectrum of manifestations of asymptomatic infection to primary viral pneumonia, which can be fatal.
Despite exist in the public domain opinion about "atypical forms" of influenza, the clinical picture of flu is very typical stereotype. Onset is sudden, with severe general condition, headache, chills, pain in muscles and joints, loss of appetite. The main feature of influenza is the sharp rise in temperature to 38-40 degrees. She remained at high levels by the second or third day began to rapidly decline. The second day appear catarrhal symptoms: nasal nose, leaking serous discharge from the nose, sneezing, irritation and discomfort in the throat. There may be redness of the mucous membranes of the eyes and hard tears. There is a dry irritating cough. In the neck detected single enlarged lymph nodes. In auscultation and radiography of the lungs Absent abnormalities. Typically, a temperature decrease of the symptoms of the respiratory tract are exacerbated. Cough gradually becomes moist and productive.
In people over the age of 65 the temperature was increased in low-grade values (slightly elevated - br), respiratory symptoms are mild, often noted blurred consciousness. After normalization of temperature and symptom recovery runs from 1 to 2 weeks with malaise, tiredness and cough.
In children, the course is similar to that in adults, but is also characterized by certain features. The temperature normally is higher and may be accompanied by convulsions. Higher the incidence of otitis media, croup (viral infection of the respiratory tract in children 3 months to 3 years, with ongoing barking cough, hoarse or raspy voice, loud, rapid and labored breathing, etc.. B. River ), pneumonia, and myositis. (Myositis in children covers the muscles of the lower leg and is expressed in much pain when walking.) Influenza predisposes to secondary bacterial pneumonia and exacerbate pre-existing asthma. In children under 3 years are common dyspeptic events, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain. There may be multiple diarrheal stools.
In infancy the disease is particularly high temperatures, severely impaired general condition in the absence of local signs and can be fatal.
In the second and third trimester of pregnancy have an increased risk of fatal ending influenza infection to the fetus, since the virus is not isolated from it.
Influenza virus type B gives the same spectrum of diseases influenza A, but the incidence of serious and complex shapes is 4-fold lower. Typical events are gastrointestinal - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and myositis. Infection with Influenza occurs in small epidemics and affects mostly school and adolescence.
Influenza C occurs as sporadic cases with mild catarrhal manifestations (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract)
Complications of influenza are mainly from the lungs, and less of the nervous system. They are more common in patients of advanced age.
The diagnosis of flu made on the basis of data on the seasonal incidence, clinical features of acute onset with marked intoksikotsionen and subsequent catarrhal syndrome. The final placement is by virological investigations. In the acute period of the disease (the third day) materials from patients for research pharyngeal and / or nasal swabs and washes, and tracheal or bronchial aspirates. They demonstrate any naspetsifichni influenza antigens within minutes and hours. (For virus isolation in eggs and cell culture and subsequent identification take 1 to 2 weeks.) Used different serological methods for the detection of antibodies to influenza virus in two consecutive serum samples taken. Differential diagnosis is necessary in the first place with the other acute respiratory viral diseases due to increased seasonal incidence during the cold months of the year, the presence of intoxication and catarrhal symptoms.
Treatment of uncomplicated forms of influenza are appointed antipyretics, analgesics or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In persistent cough include antitussive. For the treatment of flu A are known four antiviral agents: amantadine, rimantadine, and neuraminidase inhibitors (zanamivir, oseltamivir). To exhibit therapeutic activity, need to be employed in the first 24 to 48 hours from the onset of the disease. Their therapeutic effect, comprising: a mild course of the disease, reduction in the duration of the symptoms, reducing the incidence of complications and duration of the radiation navirusa. The preparations can be used for prophylaxis of influenza in naive patients during the flu epidemic or when it has been shown that the population circulating virus strain which is not included in the panel for flu vaccines.
Primary prophylactic measure against influenza has been the use of flu vaccines. All of which are developed after isolation and precise selection of circulating the season influenza A and B viruses, which is supposed to cause the disease in the following season. Vaccines decrease in greater severity than the incidence of infection. It is essential to familiarize the public and health care personnel with the basic principles of personal hygiene and the risk of transmission of influenza virus: coughing and sneezing and by contact with contaminated hands mucosa. Chemoprophylaxis with antivirals has a high efficiency - 80%.