Sunday, August 11, 2013

3 stomach flu 2013: Viral gastroenteritis - the lookout in the summer, but not only!

summer stomach flu symptoms
Viral gastroenteritis, also known as stomach flu, is an inflammation of the mucous coating of the stomach and intestines caused by certain groups of viruses. They settled in the epithelial cells of the mucosa, where they multiply and cause damage to the normal structure and function. The stomach flu is a highly infectious and very common - every year there are tens of millions.

1. What are the stomach flu symptoms?

The main stomach flu symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting. Also frequently observed headache, fever, chills, and abdominal pain.

Dehydration is the most common complication of stomach flu. Infants, young children, the elderly and those with weakened immune systems are most at risk. Symptoms of dehydration are thirst, often urination, dark urine, lethargy, fatigue, dizziness.

In young children and infants, symptoms are dry mouth and tongue, crying without tears, fever, unusually loud crying or high irritability, sunken eyes and cheeks.

Medical attention should be sought mandatory for young children and people with suppressed immunity, and in cases of blood in the stool (an indicator of bacterial superinfection), severe and prolonged course of infection, symptoms of dehydration. Severe dehydration may require intravenous hydration in a hospital setting.

2. What are the most common causes of viral gastroenteritis?

Rotavirus. Rotaviruses are the leading cause of stomach flu in infants and young children. Incubation was continued for 1 to 3 days. Usually, the infection is accompanied by watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever and muscular pain for 3 to 7 days. Rotaviruses can infect and adults in contact with the ailing child. In adults, the stomach flu symptoms less severe.

Calicivirus. Cause infections in people of all ages. Noroviruses are the most common calicivirus and the most common cause of stomach flu in adults. Often reaching epidemic. Usually epidemics broke out from October to April, but are possible at any time of year. Typical stomach flu symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, headache and muscle aches. The symptoms started 1-2 days after contact with the virus and still 1 to 3 days.

Adenoviruses. Mainly infects children under 2 years. There are 49 types of adenoviruses, one of which affects the gastrointestinal tract and causes nausea and diarrhea. The incubation period is 8-10 days and symptoms persist between one and two weeks. Adenoviral infections may occur at any time of year.

Astroviruses. Infect mostly infants and children less adults. The symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting, continuing for up to one week, and appears after an incubation period of 3-4 days. Symptoms were less severe than Norovirus or rotavirus infections. Astroviruses stomach flu are most common during the winter months.

3. How to transmit infection?

Agents spread by airborne and contact-bit path. Available in faeces and vomit. Patients can contaminate food and objects with the virus after defecating, especially if you do not wash their hands. Able to communicate and contact with another person, such as a handshake. Emesis viruses fall into the air.

Noroviruses are highly contagious especially. They can remain viable for months on the surface of objects which have not been thoroughly disinfected. If there are sick of such viruses, it is recommended that the disinfection of the surrounding objects with bleach.

4. How to diagnose stomach flu?

Typically diagnosis is only based on the clinical manifestations. People with severe and prolonged stomach flu symptoms, you may have to visit a specialist to recommend the study of feces to exclude bacterial and parasitic pathogens and identify company-or norovirus.

5. What is the treatment of stomach flu?

Most infections are self-limiting and require no etiological treatment.

Antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections!

The goal of treatment is to control stomach flu symptoms and prevent complications. OTC medications such as loperamide (antidiarrheal) and bismuth subsalicylate (antacid antidiarrheal and antibacterial agent) can be administered in adults but not in children.

Important is the right diet, especially to prevent dehydration and disruption of water-salt balance. It includes drinking plenty of fluids (ideally fruit juices or juices) to replace lost fluids and salts, feed restriction starting eating light, easily digestible food - first toast, then boiled potatoes, rice and bananas, avoid of fatty meats and oily food.

Recommended and plenty of rest.

Children are particularly at risk of complications, especially dehydration. They may be appropriate for the provision of special rehydration solutions. Recommended the granting of such solutions even in infants.

Currently explore new diagnostic tests for different rotavirus strains, new vaccines against norovirus and company-and the benefits of probiotics in the treatment of stomach flu.

6. How can you avoid viral gastroenteritis?

The risk of infection can be greatly reduced by following a few tips:

Thoroughly wash hands with soap after each visit to the toilet or changing diapers and before each meal.
Disinfect the vessels of the patient. (Where possible, it is recommended to use bleach.)
Avoid consumption of foods and beverages that are suspected of being infected.

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