Tuesday, February 12, 2013
Stomach Flu Description:
The stomach flu is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, which can be caused by various reasons. The main symptom of the disease is diarrhea, but it may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The severity of the condition varies from mild to severe and even life threatening. The right approach requires a detailed history collected that can identify not only the cause of diarrhea, but also potential risks of complications. Importance is the specification of the type of food that is consumed before the appearance of diarrhea, number of stools and their consistency, the presence of impurities such as blood, mucus or pus, accompanying symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal pain and fever.
Stomach flu Types:
According agent into the following types of stomach flu:
Viral stomach flu - the most common cause of rotavirus and norovirus are;
Bacterial stomach flu - may be caused by Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella and other bacteria.
Parasitic stomach flu - the agents are parasites, mostly falling in the body with food - Entamoeba hystolitica, Giardia lamblia.
Eosinophilic stomach flu - a rare type of gastroenteritis that can occur in both adults and children. Its cause is not fully understood, but an association with food allergies.
Stomach flu Causes:
Causes of stomach flu are very diverse. Viruses and bacteria are the most common of them. They are very contagious and can be spread through contaminated food or water. Infection is spread from person to person by the fecal-oral route - with bad hygiene and contamination of food with dirty hands.
Stomach flu caused by viruses, usually lasting one - two days. Some cases are caused by bacteria, however, can not continue much longer.
About 50 to 70% of stomach flu in adults are caused by norovirus. They are highly contagious and spread quickly. Norovirus infection is most common in the consumption of food contaminated with them or touch other contaminated objects and putting hands in the mouth afterwards.
Another frequent cause of viral gastroenteritis are rotavirus. They primarily affect children in breastfeeding and early childhood and can cause severe diarrhea dehydration. Causes among Adenoviruses are viruses, parvovirus, Astrovirusi.
Bacterial gastroenteritis, unlike viral, pass more severe, often leading to complications and infection can also affect other organs. Some bacteria that cause stomach flu, produce toxins, which are due to symptoms of stomach flu.
Infection with Escherichia colimozhe lead to significant complications of the kidneys, especially in children. Other common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis are Shigella, Salmonella, Campilobacter.
Infection with salmonella bacteria is most common in eating contaminated food, but also in close contact with birds and reptiles are carriers of the bacteria.
The prevalence of infection with Shigella can be achieved by consuming contaminated food or water, and swimming in polluted waters, and also in contact with homosexual men.
Infection with Campylobacter most often by eating raw or poorly cooked chicken.
Parasitic stomach flu is less common than viral and bacterial. Infection with these tiny organisms is most common in the consumption of contaminated water or swimming in contaminated waters. The most common causes stomach flu Giardia lamblia. Often the infection is ingestion of water from lakes and rivers contaminated with animal feces.
Another cause is Cryptosporidium, which is found in the intestinal tract of animals and is excreted in the feces. Infection occurs in a similar way, Giardia lamblia, but mostly affects people with reduced immunity.
Other non-infectious stomach flu can be caused by chemical toxins contained mostly in seafood, food allergies, heavy metals, antibiotics and other medications.
Stomach Flu Symptoms:
As the name indicates, Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, which most often occurs with vomiting and diarrhea.
The most common stomach flu symptoms are:
Mild fever - not exceeding 38 degrees.
Nausea and vomiting;
Mild to moderate diarrhea;
Abdominal pain - incremental and relief after defecation.
Serious stomach flu symptoms that require medical attention include:
Blood in stool or vomit;
Vomiting more than 48 hours;
Temperatures above 40 degrees;
Swollen and tender abdomen;
Signs of dehydration - weakness and dizziness, dry skin and mucous membranes, decreased urine output, and decreased sweating.
Stomach Flu Diagnosis:
The disease is usually self-limiting and maintenance treatment is to control stomach flu symptoms and to prevent dehydration. Most often the need for further research. For persistent stomach flu symptoms or complications of the condition tests will be ordered. The cause is most often sought in a sample of stool. It also appointed laboratory tests - complete blood count, electrolytes. Important for diagnosis and limit the spread of infection is thorough collection of the history of the disease. Have important data on travel, contact with poisons and irritants, antibiotics or other medications, changes in diet or eating questionable food, presence of other sick family member.
Stomach Flu Treatment:
Treatment of stomach flu is primarily supportive. It is good to make so-called. Diet pause that facilitates the work of the gastrointestinal tract. The most important thing is to ensure adequate intake of fluids adequately lost from vomiting and diarrhea. In profuse vomiting and inability to fluid intake by mouth, they are employed intravenously in hospital. Used solutions rich in electrolytes, usually Ringer, Hartmann.
Anti-diarrheal agents are not recommended as they reduce the bowel and the risk of invasion of bacteria from the intestine into the blood (bacteremia). However, they can apply mild diarrhea without the presence of blood.
If necessary, appoint anti-sickness medication, but they are not recommended in children.
Taking probiotics helps in faster recovery of normal intestinal flora.
In establishing the causative bacterial antibiotics are appointed by antibiograms.
Herbal treatment for stomach flu:
Some herbs and herbal extracts act soothing the gastrointestinal tract. They have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and immunostimulatory activity. Accepted in the form of tea or capsules.
Echinacea - has antibacterial activity and stimulates the organism's defenses;
Marshmallow - emollient and anti-inflammatory;
Ginger - it is a tonic for the stomach and intestines. Anti-inflammatory effect, relieves nausea and vomiting, stomach pain and reduces bloating;
Rosehips - act favorably on diarrheal syndrome. Rosehip tea can be used instead of water for hydration. Apply in childhood.
Chamomile - soothes pain and discomfort in the stomach and intestines.
Stomach flu Prevention:
Most important for the prevention of stomach flu has the respect of personal hygiene with regular hand washing. Food should also be washed thoroughly and pass through a sufficient heat treatment. Avoid swimming in surface water due to risk of ingestion of contaminated water.