Wednesday, January 16, 2013

0 All about stomach flu - Gastroenteritis. Part 1

stomach flu

In a series of articles will try to give complete information about gastroenteritis, commonly known as stomach flu.
  Due to the huge volume of information will divide the article into 3 parts.
I suggest you see what contained in all 3 articles.
1. Article 1:
      1. Symptoms and signs
      2.1 Viral
      2.2 Bacterial
      2.3 Parasite
      2.4 Transmission
      2.5 Non-infectious
2. Article 2:

     3 Pathophysiology
     4 Diagnosis
     4.1 Dehydration
     4.2 Differential diagnosis
     5 Prevention
     5.1 The environment
     5.2 Vaccination
3. Article 3:

     6 Mastering
     6.1 Rehydration
     6.2 Diet
     6.3 Antiemetics
     6.4 Antibiotics
     6.5 antidiarrhoeals
     7 Epidemiology

All about stomach flu - Gastroenteritis. Part 1

Gastroenteritis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach ("gastro" -) and small intestine ("entero" -), leading to a combination of diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain and cramps. also called a tour, gastric stomach virus and bacteria. Although not related to the flu, often called the stomach flu and gastro flu.
Worldwide, most cases in children are caused by rotavirus. In adults, the virus and Campylobacter are common. Less common causes include other bacteria (or their toxins) and parasites. Transfer may occur due to consumption of improperly prepared foods or contaminated water or through close contact with people who are contagious.
The main way of coping is adequate hydration. In mild or moderate cases can usually be achieved by oral rehydration solution. In more severe cases may require intravenous fluids. Stomach flu mainly affects children and those in developing countries.

Stomach flu symptoms and signs

Gastroenteritis usually includes diarrhea and vomiting and in rare cases occurs in only one or the other. May occur and stomach cramps. Signs and symptoms usually begin 12-72 hours after infection with the infectious agent. If due to a viral agent, the condition usually improves within one week. Some viral agents may be associated with fever, fatigue, headache and muscle pain. If stools are bloody, unlikely to be caused by a virus, but is more likely due to the bacterium. Some bacterial infections may be associated with severe stomach pain and can last for several weeks.
Children infected with rotavirus usually recover completely in three to eight days. In poor countries, however, the treatment of acute infections is often inaccessible and persistent diarrhea is common. Dehydration is a common complication of diarrhea and child with a significant degree of dehydration can have prolonged capillary filling, decreased skin turgor, and abnormal breathing Repeated infections usually occur in areas with poor sanitation and malnutrition prevented growth and this can lead to long delays in cognitive processes.
Reactive arthritis occurs in 1% of people after infection kampilobakteriyni species and Guillain-Barré syndrome occurs in 0.1%. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) can occur as a result of infection with Shiga toxin-producing types of E. coli and Shigella, which leads to decreased platelet count, poor kidney function and reduced number of red blood cells (due to their destruction). Children show a greater tendency to HUS than adults. Some viral infections can cause benign infantile seizures.

Stomach flu reason

Viruses (especially Rotavirus) and bacteria E. coli and Campylobacter are the main causes of gastroenteritis. There are, however, many other infectious agents that can cause this sindrom.V some cases there are non-infectious causes, but they are less likely than viral or bacterial. etiology. The risk of infection in children is higher due to the lack of immunity and relatively poor hygiene in them.


Viruses are known to cause stomach flu include rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus. Rotavirus is the most common cause of stomach flu in children and has a similar frequency of occurrence in both developed and developing countries. Viruses cause about 70% of the episodes of infectious diarrhea in children. Rotavirus is a rare cause of adult acquired immunity due.
But rovirusat is the leading cause of gastroenteritis among adults in the United States, causing more than 90% of the outbreaks. These localized epidemics usually occur when groups of people spend a lot of time in physical proximity, such as cruise ships, hospitals or restaurants. People may still be contagious even after they no longer diarrhea. Norovirus is responsible for around 10% of cases in children.


In developed countries, campylobacter yeyuni is the main cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, half of the cases are linked to exposure to contact with birds. In children, the bacteria is responsible for around 15% of cases, the most common species are E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter. If the bacteria gets food and remain at room temperature for several hours, the bacteria multiply and increase the risk of infection for those who consume the food. Some foods that are often associated with diseases include raw or poorly cooked meat, poultry, seafood and eggs, raw sprouts, not pasteurized milk and soft cheeses and fruit and vegetable juices. In developing countries, especially in Africa, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, cholera is common cause of gastroenteritis. This infection is usually transmitted through contaminated water or food.
Toksigen Clostridium difitsile is an important cause of diarrhea, which occurs more often in adults. Young children may carry these bacteria without developing stomach flu symptoms. It is a common cause of diarrhea in people who are in hospital and is often associated with antibiotic use. Staphylococcus aureus infective diarrhea may also occur in people who have used antibiotics. "Travelers' diarrhea" is usually kind of bacterial gastroenteritis. Medicines that suppress acid seems significant increased risk of infection after exposure to certain organisms, including Clostridium species difitsile, salmonella and campylobacter. Greater risk exists for those taking proton pump inhibitors, H2 antagonists than.


Many protozoa can cause gastroenteritis - the most common giardiya flap - but kind entameba histolitika and cryptosporidia are also implied. As a group, these agents represent about 10% of cases in children. Giardiyata is more common in developing countries, but the etiological agent causing this type of disease in some degree almost everywhere. It occurs more often in people who have traveled in areas with high prevalence of the disease in children attending kindergarten, men who have sex with men, and after disasters.


The transmission can be done by consuming contaminated water or using the personal belongings of another person. In regions with alternating wet and dry seasons, water quality typically deteriorates during the wet season, which is associated with intense weather onset. In areas of the world with pronounced seasons, infections are more common in winter. Artificial infant feeding bottles sterilized with poor represent a significant cause of disease worldwide. The percentages of the cases reported also associated with poor hygiene, especially for children in overcrowded households, and people who suffer from malnutrition. Once you develop tolerance, adults can carry certain organisms without signs or symptoms, and thus act as natural reservoirs of infection. While some agents (such as Shigella) are found only in primates, etc. can be found among the various groups of animals (such as giardiyata).

Not infectious

There are not many infectious causes inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the more common reasons include the use of drugs (NSAIDs), certain nutrients such as lactose (for people who are intolerant) and gluten (for people with tseliachna disease). Chrono disease can also not be an infectious source the (often difficult) gastroenteritis. The disease can occur also due to toxins. Some foodborne diseases that are associated with symptoms of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea include food poisoning by eating siguatera zarazena predatory fish skombroidoza associated with the consumption of certain types of rotting fish, tetrodotoxin poisoning by eating fugu fish and other botulism usually occurs by eating improperly canned foods.

Be sure to read All about stomach flu - Gastroenteritis. Part 2

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