Wednesday, January 23, 2013

0 All about stomach flu - Gastroenteritis. Part 2

stomach flu

As promised, we continue with the theme "All of a stomach flu - Gastroenteritis." This article will describe:

3 Pathophysiology
4 Diagnosis
4.1 Dehydration
4.2 Differential diagnosis
5 Prevention
5.1 The environment
5.2 Vaccination

Stomach flu pathophysiology

Stomach flu symptoms was defined as of vomiting or diarrhea due to infection of the small intestine or colon. Changes in the small intestine are usually not inflammatory, and those in the colon are inflamed. Тхе number pathogens that are sufficient to be able to cause infection varies from one (for cryptosporidia) to 108 (zavibrio cholera).


Stomach flu is diagnosed clinically based on signs and symptoms of the patient. It is usually not necessary to determine the exact cause because it would not change the way of dealing with the disease. However, to do fecal testing of patients with blood in the stools of those who may have been exposed to food poisoning and those who have recently traveled to developing countries. Diagnostic tests may also be made to explore. Since approximately 10% of infants and young children receive hypoglycemia in this population is recommended measuring serum glucose. If there are serious concerns about dehydration, you should also do research for electrolytes and renal function.


An important part of the diagnostic evaluation is to determine whether a patient has dehydration and dehydration is usually defined as mild (3-5%), moderate (6-9%) and severe (≥ 10%). In children, the most accurate determination symptoms of moderate to severe dehydration are prolonged capillary filling, decreased skin turgor, and abnormal breathing. Other findings that may help in the diagnosis (when used in combination) are sinking eyeball, decreased activity, lack of tearing, and dry mouth. The normal volume of urine and oral fluid intake are good signs. Laboratory studies have greater clinical use to assess the degree of dehydration.

Differential diagnosis

Other possible causes signs and stomach flu symptoms resembling those of gastroenteritis that should be excluded are appendicitis, volvulus, inflammatory bowel disease, urinary tract infections and diabetes. You should also take into consideration pancreatic insufficiency syndrome, short small intestine, Whipple disease, tseliachna disease and laxative abuse. The differential stomach flu diagnosis may be difficult if the patient has symptoms only vomiting or diarrhea (but not both).
The incidence of appendicitis can occur with vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea in a small amount to 33% of cases. This is in contrast to the large amounts of diarrhea, which are typical of gastroenteritis. Lung infections or urinary tract infections in children can also cause vomiting or diarrhea. Classic case of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is manifested with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, but no diarrhea. One study found that 17% of children with DKA, the condition is diagnosed as gastroenteritis.

Stomach flu Prevention


Reserves of easily accessible fresh water and good sanitation practices are essential to reduce the incidence of clinically significant infection and stomach flu. Taking personal precautions (eg hand washing) demonstrated decreased the incidence of gastroenteritis in both developing and developed countries to 30%. Alcohol-based gels preparations can be helpful. Breastfeeding and improving general hygiene are important factors, especially in areas with poor sanitation. Breast milk helps to reduce both the incidence of developing infections and their duration. Avoiding the consumption of contaminated food and water are also effective methods.

Flu Vaccination

Since rotavirus flu vaccine is as effective and safe, in 2009 the World Health Organisation has recommended it be offered to all children around the world. We are approved to distribute two brands of rotavirus vaccines, and several more are in development. In Africa and Asia, these flu vaccines have reduced severe cases of the disease in infants and in those countries that have established national immunization programs and the weight percentages of cases of the disease have declined. This vaccine can prevent disease and not vaccinated children, as it reduces the number of infected, which can spread the disease. From 200 onwards, the implementation of a vaccination program for rotavirus in the United States has significantly decreased the incidence of diarrhea by up to 80%. The first dose of vaccine should be given to infants aged between 6 and 15 weeks. Oral cholera vaccine has shown 50-60% efficacy over two years.

Be sure to read All about stomach flu - Gastroenteritis. Part 1

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