Tuesday, September 17, 2013

1 Stomach flu : Kobuvirus, the new stomach infection

Kobuviruses, new causes of stomach flu

In 1989 . in the county Aihi in Japan in the stool of a person suffering from a stomach flu, was isolated agent called Aihivirus. Yamashita and Takeda authors found that it was 30nm smaller, round, non-enveloped virus that has a positive single-stranded RNA genome of 8280 nucleotides. Aihivirus with newly stomach virus in cattle and swine, formed a new genus Kobuvirus to the picornavirus family .

Increasing also interesting to kobuvirusite rapidly induces numerous studies have found that infection in Asia, Europe and America , both in humans and in animals. Proven so far several different genotypes - to humans, bovine , swine and sheep and possibly rats.
Human kobuvirus a prototype Aihivirusa has 3 variants A, B and C, which are distributed in different continents . Serological survey registers from 70 to 90% of positive blood samples in the elderly . This percentage will get bigger with age. As with other intestinal infections , about half of them pass oligosymptomatic . Clinical picture does not differ much from that of rotaviruses stomach flu. After a short incubation period of up to two days the infection starts with the usual symptoms of stomach flu - transient increase in temperature , malaise, abdominal pain and diarrhea, which is complicated by E. coli . E. coli infection accompanied kobuvirus infection. Rarely appear and respiratory flu symptoms - panting , leaks from the nose , cough, pneumonia , headaches, etc.

Kobuvirus infection has recently become a problem for the human pathology , but still not have developed biologics against her.

Boville kobuvirus is also quite common cause of stomach flu, but because of poorly studied, the distribution is still unclear, and there almost half oligosymptomatic infections occur . Initially infection induces abomazit which reduces appetite , then the virus passes into the small intestine and cause more severe enteritis . Some authors also reported prolonged colitis. Often kobuvirus infection is found in the respiratory tract as bronchopneumonia lesions.Te accompanied regularly by E. coli infections. A subset of infected calves developed respiratory infection catarrhal conjunctivitis . The mortality rate ranges between 5 and 10% , especially if combined with a bacterial infection.

Swine kobuvirus was first isolated in Hungary in 2007, and then in a number of Asian countries - China, Korea , Thailand and Japan. Serological studies show about 90 % positive pigs. Unlike Aihi and Boville kobuvirus, swine Kobuvirus is prone to generalization and viraemias. It is localized not only in the intestine , but can often be found in the body. The virus is excreted in the faeces not only, but also through all the excreta of the sick pig. So it spreads much more intense. Except for diarrhea and stomach flu, the kobuvirus involved in pneumonia with encephalitis and meningitis in pigs, etc.
The Kobuvirus inefection diagnosis is difficult and lengthy. Identification is achieved only through the SGP and then for each genotype using different primers. Clinical picture of kobuvirus infection is not typical and may be confused with several other virus infection.

Despite the significant number of studies , many countries and areas of kobuvirus infection in animals remain unanswered . Spread of infection in many countries is not yet established . Pathogenesis of kobuviruses not only affects the intestinal tract, but also covers a number of other bodies. When this is not yet known which cells and tissues are Predilection for this virus does quiescent conditions , etc.

Immunity against kobuviruses is also unbeaten and appropriate vaccines have not been developed . Since kobuvirus infection becomes relevant especially fever have in this country to begin research vahu this infection .

From the foregoing, it appears that are kobuviruses causative as stomach flu and respiratory diseases such as pneumonia. Among other things, kobuvirus infection usually accompanied with E. coli infection, which further complicates the clinical picture. In some cases the combination is lethal.
Symptoms of kobuvirus infetsiya are standart stomach flu symptoms and in some cases, symptoms of seasonal flu. This makes diagnosis more difficult.

1 коментара:

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